Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation

Our Research

The Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF) is focused on developing a detailed understanding of lignocellulose, the main structural material in plants.


Every living organism on Earth uses glucose as an energy source. Plants not only make glucose from sunlight, water and CO2, but they convert much of it into an energy-rich material – the lignocellulosic cell wall – that is both a versatile material and a recalcitrant feedstock for liquid biofuel production, both properties stemming from its hierarchical structure at the nano- to mesoscales. Our research addresses key questions in plant biology: by understanding the fundamental science of how plants manufacture lignocellulose, we may devise new ways to control it (through genetic engineering) and transform it (through chemical engineering) for improved technologies to supply our energy and material needs for a sustainable future.

Research Plan and Direction

CLSF researchers investigate:

These manufacturing processes, practiced by nearly every plant cell, greatly exceed the current capabilities of human technologies. The goals of the CLSF are to develop a detailed nano- to meso-scale understanding of plant cell walls, from glucose polymerization and glucan crystallization into cellulose microfibrils to the orderly hierarchical assembly of the components to form the mature plant cell wall. Success in our research goals will offer many lessons in how to create such hierarchical structures, how to vary and manipulate them, and potentially how to disassemble them more efficiently than is currently possible. Our team of accomplished biological, physical and computational researchers with their diverse technical expertise and team collaboration work towards these goals which straddle biology and physics.

Research Highlights

More information


  1. Wang, Tuo; Chen, Yuning; Tabuchi, Akira; Hong, Mei; and Cosgrove, Daniel (2016) The Target of β-Expansin EXPB1 in Maize Cell Walls from Binding and Solid-State NMR Studies. Plant Physiol. online ahead of print. DOI: 10.1104/pp.16.01311
  2. Pandey, Jyotsna L.; Kiemle, Sarah N; Richard, Tom L.; Zhu, Yimin; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Anderson, Charles T. (2016) Investigating Biochemical and Developmental Dependencies of Lignification with a Click-Compatible Monolignol Analog in Arabidopsis thaliana Stems. Front. Plant Sci., online ahead of print. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01309
  3. Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Zheng, Yunzhen; Xin, Xiaoran; Huang, Shixin; Kong, Zhaosheng; Kim, Seong H; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Gu, Ying (2016) Cellulose synthase complexes act in a concerted fashion to synthesize highly aggregated cellulose in secondary cell walls of plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(40): 11348-11353 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613273113
  4. Purushotham, Pallinti; Cho, Sung Hyun; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M; Kumar, Manish; Nixon, B. Tracy; Bulone, Vincent; and Zimmer, Jochen (2016) A single heterologously expressed plant cellulose synthase isoform is sufficient for cellulose microfibril formation in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(4): 11360-11365 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1606210113
  5. Wang, Tuo; Phyo, Pyae; and Hong, Mei (2016) Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy of plant cell walls. Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 78: 56-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssnmr.2016.08.001
  6. Ogawa, Yu; Lee, Christopher M; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; and Kim, Seong H (2016) Absence of Sum Frequency Generation in Support of Orthorhombic Symmetry of α-Chitin. Macromolecules 49(18): 7025-7031. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.6b01583
  7. Haigler, Candace H.; Davis, Jonathan K.; Slabaugh, Erin; and Kubicki, James D (2016) Biosynthesis and assembly of cellulose. Molecular Cell Biology of the Growth and Differentiation of Plant Cells, online ahead of print. DOI: 10.1201/b20316
  8. Nixon, B. Tracy; Mansouri, Katayoun; Singh, Abhishek; Du, Juan; Davis, Jonathan K.; Lee, Jung-Goo; Slabaugh, Erin; Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; O'Neill, Hugh; Roberts, Eric M.; Roberts, Alison W.; Yingling, Yaroslava G.; and Haigler, Candace H. (2016) Comparative Structural and Computational Analysis Supports Eighteen Cellulose Synthases in the Plant Cellulose Synthesis Complex. Sci. Rep. 6: 28696. DOI: 10.1038/srep28696
  9. Du, Juan; Vepachedu, Venkata; Cho, Sung Hyun; Kumar, Manish; and Nixon, B. Tracy (2016) Structure of the Cellulose Synthase Complex of Gluconacetobacter hansenii at 23.4 Å Resolution. PLoS One 11(5): e0155886. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155886
  10. Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D; and Hong, Mei (2016) Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations. Biomacromolecules 17: 2210-2222. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.6b00441
  11. Slabaugh, Erin; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Chaves, Arielle M; Wilson, Liza; Wilson, Carmen; Davis, Jonathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Anderson, Charles T; Roberts, Alison W; and Haigler, Candace H (2016) The valine and lysine residues in the conserved FxVTxK motif are important for the function of phylogenetically distant plant cellulose synthases. Glycobiology 26(5): 509-519. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwv118
  12. Tran, Mai L; and Roberts, Alison W (2015) Cellulose synthase (CESA) gene expression profiling of Physcomitrella patens. Plant Biol. (Berlin, Ger.) 18(3): 363-368. DOI: 10.1111/plb.12416
  13. McClosky, Daniel D; Wang, Bo; Chen, Gong; and Anderson, Charles T. (2016) The click-compatible sugar 6-deoxy-alkynyl glucose metabolically incorporates into Arabidopsis root hair tips and arrests their growth. Phytochemistry (Elsevier) 123: 16-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.01.007
  14. Berry, Elizabeth A; Tran, Mai L; Dimos, Christos S; Budziszek, Michael J; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; and Roberts, Alison W. (2016) Immuno and affinity cytochemical analysis of cell wall composition in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Front. Plant Sci. 7: 248. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00248
  15. Cellulose Journal cover Feb 2016Rui, Yue; and Anderson, Charles T (2016) Functional analysis of cellulose and xyloglucan in the walls of stomatal guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 170: 1398-1419. DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01066
  16. Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Davis, Jonathan K; Slabaugh, Erin; Singh, Abhishek; Haigler, Candace H; and Yingling, Yaroslava G (2016) Prediction of the structures of the plant-specific regions of vascular plant cellulose synthases and correlated functional analysis. Cellulose 23(1): 145-161. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-015-0789-6 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the February 2016 issue of Cellulose
  17. Nagachar, Nivedita; and McManus, John B (2016) Microbial Cellulose Synthesis. Microbial Factories: Biofuels, Waste Treatment 1: 203-216. DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-2598-0
  18. Basu, Snehasish; Omadjela, Okako; Gaddes, David; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Zimmer, Jochen; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2016) Cellulose Microfibril Formation by Surface-Tethered Cellulose Synthase Enzymes. ACS Nano 10: 1896-1907. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b05648
  19. Plant Journal cover January 2016Cosgrove, Daniel Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening (2016) F1000Research 5: 119. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.7180.1
  20. Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen; and Cosgrove, Daniel J (2016) Spatial Organization of Cellulose Microfibrils and Matrix Polysaccharides in Primary Plant Cell Walls as Imaged by Multi-Channel Atomic Force Microscopy. Plant J. 85(2): 179-192. DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13102 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the January 2016 issue of The Plant Journal.
  21. Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Huang, Shixin; and Kim, Seong H (2016) Multimodal Broadband Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (MM-BB-V-SFG) Spectrometer and Microscope. J. Phys. Chem. B 120(1): 102-116. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b10290
  22. Cosgrove, Daniel J (2016) Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wallmodifying enzymes. J. Exp. Bot. 67(2): 463-476 (2016). DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv511
  23. Anderson, Charles T (2016) We be jammin’: an update on pectin biosynthesis, trafficking and dynamics. J. Exp. Bot. 67(2): 495-502. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv501
  24. Wang, Tuo; and Hong, Mei (2016) Solid-state NMR investigations of cellulose structure and interactions with matrix polysaccharides in plant primary cell walls. J. Exp. Bot. 67(2): 503-514. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv416
  25. Plant Physiology cover January 2016Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; Putnam, Daniel K; Zhang, Qiu; Petridis, Loukas; Heller, William T; Nixon, B. Tracy; Haigler, Candace H; Kalluri, Udaya; Coates, Leighton; Langan, Paul; Smith, Jeremy C; Meiler, Jens; and O'Neill, Hugh A (2016) Structural Study of CESA1 catalytic domain of Arabidopsis thaliana Cellulose Synthesis Complex: Evidence for CESA trimers. Plant Physiol. 170: 123-135. DOI: 10.​1104/​pp.​15.​01356 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the January 2016 issue of Plant Physiology.
  26. McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; and Tien, Ming (2016) AcsA–AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 82: 58-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2015.08.015
  27. Xiao, Chaowen; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Anderson, Charles T (2016) Xyloglucan deficiency disrupts microtubule stability and cellulose biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, altering cell growth and morphogenesis. Plant Physiol. 170(1): 234-249. DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01395
  28. Dumont, Marie; Lehner, Arnaud; Bardor, Muriel; Burel, Carole; Vauzeilles, Boris; Lerouxel, Olivier; Anderson, Charles T; Mollet, Jean-Claude; and Lerouge, Patrice (2015) Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy-L-fucose induces defects in root cell elongation. Plant J. 84(6): 1137-1151. DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13071
  29. Lee, Christopher M; Kubicki, James D; Fan, Bingxin; Zhong, Linghao; Jarvis, Michael C; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Hydrogen-Bonding Network and OH Stretch Vibration of Cellulose: Comparison of Computational Modeling with Polarized IR and SFG Spectra. J. Phys. Chem. B 119(49): 15138-15149. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b08015
  30. Li, Shundai; Lei, Lei; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Gu, Ying (2015) Microtubules and cellulose biosynthesis: the emergence of new players. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 28: 76-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2015.09.002
  31. Cellulose Journal cover Dec 2015Park, Yong Bum; Kafle, Kabindra; Lee, Christopher M; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Does cellulose II exist in native alga cell walls? Cellulose structure of Derbesia cell walls studied with SFG, IR and XRD. Cellulose 22(6): 3531-3540. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-015-0750-8 In addition, their image was chosen for the cover of the December 2015 issue of Cellulose.
  32. Erbakan, Mustafa; Curtis, Brandon S; Nixon, B. Tracy; Kumar, Manish; and Curtis, Wayne R (2015) Advancing Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a platform for expression of functional membrane proteins. Protein Expression Purif. 8(7): 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2015.05.012
  33. Lee, Christopher M; Gu, Jin; Kafle, Kabindra; Catchmark, Jeffrey M; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strains ATCC 53524 and ATCC 23768: pellicle formation, post-synthesis aggregation and fiber density. Carbohydr. Polym. 133: 270-276. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.06.091
  34. Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Zhu, Xiaoyu; and Gu, Ying (2015) The TWD40-2 protein and the AP2 complex cooperate in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of cellulose synthase to regulate cellulose biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(41): 12870-12875. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1509292112
  35. Kafle, Kabindra; Shin, H; Lee, Christopher M; Park, Sunkyu; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Progressive structural changes of Avicel, bleached softwood, and bacterial cellulose during enzymatic hydrolysis. Sci. Rep. 5: 15102. DOI:10.1038/srep15102
  36. Lei, Lei; Singh, Abhishek; Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Gu, Ying (2015) CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 Is Required for Fast Recycling of Cellulose Synthase Complexes to the Plasma Membrane in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 27(10): 2926-2940. DOI: 10.​1105/​tpc.​15.​00442
  37. Zamil, M. Shafayet; Yi, Hojae; and Puri, Virendra M (2015)The mechanical properties of plant cell walls soft material at the subcellular scale: the implications of water and of the intercellular boundaries. J. Mater. Sci. 50(20): 6608-6623. DOI: 10.1007/s10853-015-9204-9
  38. Bi, Yunchen; Hubbard, Caitlin; Purushotham, Pallinti; and Zimmer, Jochen (2015) Insights into the structure and function of membrane-integrated processive glycosyltransferases. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 34: 78-86. DOI: 10.1016/
  39. Cho, Sung Hyun; Du, Juan; Sines, Ian; Poosarla, Venkata Giridhar; Vepachedu, Venkata; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Seong H; Kumar, Manish; and Nixon, B. Tracy (2015) In vitro synthesis of cellulose microfibrils by membrane protein from protoplasts of the non-vascular plant Physcomitrella patens. Biochem. J. 470(2): 195-205. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20141391
  40. Lee, Christopher M; Dazen, Kevin; Kafle, Kabindra; Moore, Andrew; Johnson, David K; Park, Sunkyu; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Correlations of Apparent Cellulose Crystallinity Determined by XRD, NMR, IR, Raman, and SFG Methods. Adv. Polym. Sci., 1-17. DOI: 10.1007/12_2015_320
  41. Erbakan, Mustafa; Curtis, Brandon S; Nixon, B. Tracy; Kumar, Manish; and Curtis, Wayne R (2015) Advancing Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a platform for expression of functional membrane proteins. Protein Expression Purif. 8(7): 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2015.05.012
  42. Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Hong, Mei (2015) Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis thaliana Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State NMR. Plant Physiol. 168 (3): 871-884. DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.00665
  43. Kong, Zhaosheng; Ioki, Motohide; Braybrook, Siobhan; Li, Shundai; Ye, Zheng-Ha; Lee, Yuh-Ru Julie; Hotta, Takashi; Chang, Anny; Tian, Juan; Wang, Guangda; and Liu, Bo (2015) Kinesin-4 functions in vesicular transport on cortical microtubules and regulates cell wall mechanics during cell elongation in plants. Mol. Plant 8(7): 1011-1023. DOI: 10.1016/j.molp.2015.01.004
  44. Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Chaves, Arielle M; and Roberts, Alison W (2015) A complementation assay for in vivo protein structure/function analysis in Physcomitrella patens (Funariaceae). Appl. Plant Sci. 3(7): 1500023. DOI: 10.3732/apps.1500023
  45. McNamara, Joshua T; Morgan, Jacob LW; and Zimmer, Jochen (2015) A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 84, 895-921. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060614-033930
  46. Yang, Hui; Zimmer, Jochen; Yingling, Yaroslava G; and Kubicki, James D (2015) How Cellulose Elongates - a QM/MM Study of the Molecular Mechanism of Cellulose Polymerization in Bacterial CESA. J. Phys. Chem. B 119 (22): 6525–6535. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b01433
  47. Pandey, Jyotsna L.; Wang, Bo; Diehl, Brett G.; Richard, Tom L; Chen, Gong; and Anderson, Charles T (2015) A Versatile Click-Compatible Monolignol Probe to Study Lignin Deposition in Plant Cell Walls. PLoS One 10(4): e0121334. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121334
  48. Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Belias, David; Park, Yong Bum; Glick, Richard E; Haigler, Candace H; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Comprehensive analysis of cellulose content, crystallinity, and lateral packing in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense cotton fibers using sum frequency generation, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Cellulose 22 (2): 971-989. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0535-5
  49. Nili, Abdolmajid; Yi, Hojae; Crespi, Vincent H; and Puri, Virendra M (2015) Examination of biological hotspot hypothesis of primary cell wall using a computational cell wall network model. Cellulose 22: 1027-1038. DOI 10.1007/s10570-015-0568-4
  50. Johnson, Quentin R; Lindsay, Richard J; Petridis, Loukas; and Shen, Tongye (2015) Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation. Molecules 20(5): 7700-7718. DOI: 10.3390/molecules20057700
  51. Kapp, Nikki; Barnes, William J; Richard, Tom L; and Anderson, Charles T (2015) Imaging with the fluorogenic dye Basic Fuchsin reveals subcellular patterning and ecotype variation of lignification in Brachypodium distachyon. J. Exp. Bot. 66 (14): 4295-4304. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv158
  52. Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Fang, Lin; Luan, Xin; Catchmark, Jeffrey M; Tien, Ming; and Kao, Teh-hui (2015) Isolation and Characterization of Two Cellulose Morphology Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769 Producing Cellulose with Lower Crystallinity. PLoS One, 10 (3), e0119504. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119504
  53. Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I; McClosky, Daniel D; Anderson, Charles T; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A; Okamoto, Ruth; and Dixit, Ram (2015) The Fragile Fiber1 kinesin contributes to cortical microtubule-mediated trafficking of cell wall components. Plant Physiol. 167: 780-792. DOI: 10.​1104/​pp.​114.​251462
  54. Park, Yong Bum; and Cosgrove, Daniel (2015) Xyloglucan and its interactions with other components of the growing cell wall. Plant Cell Physiol. 56 (2): 180-194. DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcu204
  55. Fan, Bingxin; and Maranas, Janna K (2015) Coarse-Grained Simulation of Cellulose Iβ with Application to Long Fibrils. Cellulose 22: 31-44. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0481-2
  56. Bashline, Logan; and Gu, Ying (2015) Using the Split-Ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid systems to test protein-protein interactions of transmembrane proteins. Methods Mol. Biol. (N. Y., NY, U. S.) 1242: 143-158. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1902-4_13
  57. Kim, Keekyoung; Yi, Hojae; Zamil, M Shafayet; Haque, M. Aman; and Puri, Virendra M (2015) Multiscale stress-strain characterization of outer onion epidermal peel tissue in wet and dry states. Am. J. Bot. 102: 12-20. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1400273
  58. Fang, Lin; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2015) Characterization of cellulose and other exopolysaccharides produced from Gluconacetobacter strains. Carbohydr. Polym. 115: 663-669. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.09.028
  59. Xi, Xiaoning; Kim, Seong H; and Tittmann, Bernhard (2015) Atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation study of onion abaxial epidermis walls in aqueous environment. J. Appl. Phys. 117: 024703. [DOI: 10.1063/1.4906094
  60. Fang, Lin; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2014) Characterization of water-soluble exopolysaccharides from Gluconacetobacter xylinus and their impacts on bacterial cellulose crystallization and ribbon assembly. Celulose 21: 3965-3978. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0443-8
  61. Fang, Lin; and Catchmark, Jeffrey M (2014) Structure characterization of native cellulose during dehydration and rehydration. Cellulose 21: 3951-3963. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0435-8
  62. Shklyaev, Oleg E; Kubicki, James D; Watts, Heath D; and Crespi, Vincent H (2014) Constraints on Iβ cellulose twist from DFT calculations of 13C NMR chemical shifts. Cellulose 21: 3979-3991. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0448-3
  63. Cosgrove, Daniel (2014) Re-constructing our models of cellulose and primary cell wall assembly. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 22: 122-131. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2014.11.001
  64. Hill, Joseph Lee; Hammudi, Mustafa B; and Tien, Ming (2014) The Arabidopsis Cellulose Synthase Complex: A Proposed Hexamer of CESA Trimers in an Equimolar Stoichiometry. Plant Cell 26: 4834-4842. DOI: 10.​1105/​tpc.​114.​131193
  65. Xiao, Chaowen; and Anderson, Charles T (2014) Activation Tag Screening for Cell Expansion Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods Mol. Biol. (N. Y.) 1242: 159-171. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1902-4_14
  66. Bukowski, Natalie; Pandey, Jyotsna L; Doyle, Lucas; Richard, Tom L; Anderson, Charles T; and Zhu, Yimin (2014) Development of a Clickable Designer Monolignol for Interrogation of Lignification in Plant Cell Walls. Bioconjugate Chem. 25 (12): 2189–2196. DOI: 10.1021/bc500411u
  67. Kafle, Kabindra; Greeson, Kenneth; Lee, Christopher M; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Cellulose polymorphs and physical properties of cotton fabrics processed with commercial textile mills for mercerization and liquid ammonia treatments. Text. Res. J. epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1177/0040517514527379
  68. Petridis, Loukas; O'Neill, Hugh M; Johnsen, Mariah; Fan, Bingxin; Schulze, Roland K; Mamontov, E; Maranas, Janna K; Langan, Paul; and Smith, Jeremy C (2014) Hydration Control of the Mechanical and Dynamical Properties of Cellulose. Biomacromolecules 15: 4152–4159. DOI: 10.1021/bm5011849
  69. Slabaugh, Erin; Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Xiao, Chaowen; Amick, Joshua; Anderson, Charles T; Haigler, Candace H; and Yingling, Yaroslava G (2014) Computational and genetic evidence that different structural conformations of a non-catalytic region affect the function of plant cellulose synthase. J. Exp. Bot. 65: 6645-6653. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru383
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  71. Kafle, Kabindra; Shi, Rui; Lee, Christopher M; Mittal, Ashutosh; Park, Yong Bum; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Park, Sunkyu; Chiang, Vincent; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy study of the structural assembly of cellulose microfibrils in reaction woods. Cellulose 21: 2219-2231. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0322-3
  72. White, Paul B; Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel; and Hong, Mei (2014) Water – Polysaccharide Interactions in the Primary Cell Wall of Arabidopsis thaliana from Polarization Transfer Solid-State NMR. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136: 10399-10409. DOI: 10.1021/ja504108h
  73. Lei, Lei; Zhang, Tian; Strasser, Richard; Lee, Christopher M; Gonneau, Martine; Mach, Lukas; Vernhettes, Samantha; Kim, Seong H; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Li, Shundai; and Gu, Ying (2014)The jiaoyao1 Mutant Is an Allele of korrigan1 That Abolishes Endoglucanase Activity and Affects the Organization of Both Cellulose Microfibrils and Microtubules in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 26: 2601–2616. DOI: 10.​1105/​tpc.​114.​126193
  74. Diehl, Brett G; Watts, Heath D; Kubicki, James D; Regner, Matthew R; Ralph, John; and Brown, Nicole Robitaille (2014) Towards lignin-protein crosslinking: amino acid adducts of a lignin model quinone methide. Cellulose 21: 1395-1407. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-014-0181-y
  75. Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Sunkyu; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Effects of Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharides on Bacterial Cellulose Structure Studied with Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and X‑ray Diffraction. Biomacromolecules 15: 2718-2724. DOI: 10.1021/bm500567v
  76. Tittmann, Bernhard; Maghsoudy-Louyeh, Sahar; Kim, Jeong; and Xi, Xiaoning (2014) Imaging of Biological Nano-Composite Plant Cell Wall at the Micro- and Nano-Scales. Nondestr. Charact. Mater. XIII, Proc. Int. Symp. 13th. 19: 4.
  77. Zamil, M. Shafayet; Yi, Hojae; and Puri, Virendra M (2014) Mechanical characterization of onion outer epidermal middle lamella under tensile loading. Am. J. Bot. 101(5). DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1300416
  78. Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Probing crystal structure and mesoscale assembly of cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls, tunicate tests, and bacterial films using vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16: 10844-10853. DOI: 10.1039/C4CP00515E
  79. Kubicki, James D; Watts, Heath D; Zhao, Zhen; and Zhong, Linghao (2014) Quantum Mechanical Calculations on Cellulose-Water Interactions: Structures, Energetics, Vibrational Frequencies and NMR Chemical Shifts for Surfaces of Iα and Iβ Cellulose. Cellulose 21: 909-926. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-0029-x
  80. Zhang, Tian; Mahgsoudy-Louyeh, Sahar; Tittmann, Bernhard; and Cosgrove, Daniel (2014) Visualization of the nanoscale pattern of recently-deposited cellulose microfibrils and matrix materials in never-dried primary walls of the onion epidermis. Cellulose 21: 853-862. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-9996-1
  81. Haigler, Candace H; Grimson, Mark J; Gervais, Julien; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Ho¨fte, Herman; Monasse, Bernard; and Navard, Patrick (2014) Molecular Modeling and Imaging of Initial Stages of Cellulose Fibril Assembly: Evidence for a Disordered Intermediate Stage. PLoS One 9(4), e93981. Open access:
  82. Kafle, Kabindra; Xi, Xiaoning; Lee, Christopher M; Tittmann, Bernhard; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Park, Yong Bum; and Kim, Seong H (2014) Cellulose microfibril orientation in onion (Allium cepa L.) epidermis studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Cellulose 21: 1075-1086. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-0121-2
  83. Zhao, Zhen; Crespi, Vincent H; Kubicki, James D; Cosgrove, Daniel J; and Zhong, Linghao (2014) Molecular dynamics simulation study of xyloglucan adsorption on cellulose surfaces: effects of surface hydrophobicity and side-chain variation. Cellulose 21: 1025-1039. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-013-0041-1
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